The prophet Micah was more or less a contemporary of Isaiah. Micah 1:1 notes that his ministry stretched from the reign of Jotham to Hezekiah in Judah. His time was a turbulent one. While Jotham and Hezekiah were both good kings in the sight of the Lord (2 Kings 15:32-38 and 18:1-8), Ahaz was not (2 Kings 16). If things had been improving when Micah began, they certainly took a hard turn not long after. On top of that, the northern kingdom of Israel fell during his days (2 Kings 17:6). It is a period of turbulence and upheaval everywhere.
Micah initially directs his rebuke against the people in general, warning them of their coming destruction because of their sins. The people were complacent and distorted the promises of God to mean something entirely different. “’Do not preach’—thus they preach— ‘one should not preach of such things; disgrace will not overtake us’” (Micah 2:6). God will surely not destroy His chosen people, right? But they were carnally secure, thinking that the promises applied to them even if they did not walk in the ways of the Lord. “If a man should go about and utter wind and lies, saying, ‘I will preach to you of wine and strong drink,’ he would be the preacher for this people” (Micah 2:11)! The Lord does not promise to save the faithless or the rebellious. Was that the case, who would ever be condemned?
Micah also rebukes those in command, because they in particular were “eating up” the people through their sins (Micah 3). The prophets were preaching lies and crying “peace” when there was no peace. They were promising that the sinful people would remain in the land, though in our own day many say that God does not actually hate sin. Manifest sinners are part of the Church, right? Nor is it right to say that we are all sinners, which is true enough in itself. No one deserves grace. But to say that someone who refuses to repent of a sin, declaring it to be natural or that God has made them this way, is to declare peace when there is no peace. “Therefore it shall be night to you, without vision, and darkness to you, without divination. The sun shall go down on the prophets, and the day shall be black over them; the seers shall be disgraced, and the diviners put to shame; they shall all cover their lips, for there is no answer from God” (Micah 3:6-7).
But the Lord promises to His faithful remnant that “out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem” (Micah 4:2). If the day of destruction is surely coming, then the day of peace is also coming in Jesus Christ. Bethlehem Ephrathah, being too small to supply men for military service, will be the place from whom the Ruler shall come (Micah 5:2). Jesus, born in Bethlehem, will be the one to bring peace to the land. There will be no more war or idolatry in the land anymore.
Micah 6-7 forms the final section of the book. The Lord brings an indictment against His people: why have they turned away when He has done so much for them (Micah 6:1-5)? It will not do to offer thanksgiving without atonement, so to speak. Sin must be atoned for, and rivers of oil will not cover over it (Micah 6:6-8). The wicked will come to an end for their sins, especially seen in the sins against their own brothers (Micah 6:9-16).
Yet even though the righteous man suffers much, especially at the hands of the wicked, the Lord will not fail him. He is not righteous because of anything he has done, but because the Lord “pleads my cause and executes judgment for me. He will bring me out to the light; I shall look upon His vindication” (Micah 7:9). After all, God pardons iniquity and passes over transgression for His faithful remnant. Casting our sins into the depths of the seas, the Lord shows that promised faithfulness. Abraham and our fathers have not been cast off, and God does not cast us off because of His Son.