Factionalism was one of the primary problems within the Corinthian congregation, and Paul addresses this issue first within his letter. This division, however, stemmed at least in part from the influence of those who questioned the authority of Paul (1 Corinthians 9:1-7). Such false teachers attempted to undermine Paul to make their own authority appear all the greater. Therefore, Paul addresses the problem of division by carefully clarifying the nature of his authority as an apostle, from which we may also learn the nature of authority within the Church in general.
Paul’s authority does not center in his rhetorical ability. “And I, when I came to you, brothers, did not come proclaiming to you the testimony of God with lofty speech or wisdom” (1 Corinthians 2:2). If anything, like Moses (Exodus 4:10), Paul was not particularly impressive in terms of speaking (1 Corinthians 2:3; 2 Corinthians 10:10). However, this is for their benefit, “so that your faith might not rest in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God” (1 Corinthians 2:5). Such wisdom was not worldly, but from the Spirit, and as such belongs to those who are of Christ, apart from all worldly considerations.
Nor does Paul’s authority center in his own person. The Corinthians had forgotten this, and their factionalism arose from considering the man too highly. “What then is Apollos? What is Paul? Servants through whom you believed, as the Lord assigned to each. I planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth. So neither he who plants nor he who waters is anything, but only God who gives the growth” (1 Corinthians 3:5-7). Paul’s work in laying the foundation is of much value, to be sure, but it is ultimately God working through Paul that makes this work what it is. Paul is a skilled master builder, laying the foundation which is Jesus Christ, and the Judgment will reveal the nature of that work (1 Corinthians 3:10-15).
Therefore, one must regard Paul and those who bear authority in the Church as “servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God.” A high calling, but one that bears high responsibility, since the value of stewards depends on how faithfully their exercise their office. Joseph rose to prominence in his master’s house because the Lord was with him (Genesis 39). The dishonest steward lost his position from squandering his master’s possessions (Luke 16:1-13). Stewards of Christ demonstrate their faithfulness by rightly handling the word of truth (2 Timothy 2:15), bringing out of their treasure what is new and what is old (Matthew 13:52). They continue in what they have been taught, being equipped for every good work through the power of the living Scriptures (2 Timothy 3:10-17).
But the judgment of faithfulness is not a matter of the world, either. “Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand” (Romans 14:4). And if the faithful are incompetent to judge such cases, as it were, why would the world be any better (1 Corinthians 6)? Not that Paul must answer to the Church regarding his faithfulness, but to his own master, the Lord. But when the Lord comes to judge the world, then the nature of what he has build will be revealed. Paul has labored for a time in darkness, but the light of Christ will make all things plain.
As with Paul, so also with those entrusted with smaller responsibilities. The guardian of the remote post is not thereby relieved of his duty or relaxed in its rigor. The value of his labor in the Lord too will be judged by fire. Will it be flammable, built upon the wisdom of men? The appearance of such wisdom is always impressive, but ultimately devoid of power. It is self-serving and desires only to be noticed. Or will it endure the test, built upon the mind of Christ? While such wisdom may come with rhetorical ability, it will prove itself by its fruits. It builds up those who hear it, even at the cost of making those who bear it a “spectacle to the world,” fools for Christ (1 Corinthians 4:8-13). But it is ultimately worthy of imitation. The arrogant fool who delights in worldly wisdom has only talk, but “the kingdom of God does not consist in talk, but in power” (1 Corinthians 4:20).