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The choice of Matthew 21:1-9 for the First Sunday in Advent emphasizes the royal coming of Christ. As such, it is a choice driven by the demands of the season more than the text itself. Jesus entering Jerusalem figures prominently in the upcoming passion. The Son of David, humble and lowly, comes into His own. By extension, this can also be applied to His present reign, though it is important to remember that Christ sends His Holy Spirit among us now (John 16:7).

Christ began His final journey toward Jerusalem beginning at the Jordan (Matthew 19:1). Jericho lay a short distance to the east (Matthew 20:29), and a road going uphill in a southeasterly fashion went toward Jerusalem. Perhaps not incidentally, this eastward movement away from the Jordan River by way of Jericho happens often in the Scriptures (Two examples are Joshua 3, where Israel enters the Promised Land; and 2 Kings 2, where Elijah is translated opposite Jericho and then Elisha returns.). Even in His movement, the Lord fulfills the Scriptures.

Bethphage, literally “house of unripe figs,” appears to be a small village on or near the Mount of Olives. Christ would have been following the road heading southward into Jerusalem, suggesting that Bethphage lay somewhere nearby to the north or northeast. Jesus exercises His omnipotence by telling two of His disciples how and where to find a donkey in front of them.

Matthew clearly demonstrates how Jesus fulfills prophecy through this by citing Zechariah 9:9. In its original context, Zechariah prophesies against the nations which oppressed Israel. Tyre and Sidon, Philistia, Damascus—all will suffer the judgment when the King of Zion comes. His reign will be one of peace and “his rule shall be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth” (Zechariah 9:10). Such a prophecy connects Him closely to Solomon. Solomon was a king of peace, since the Lord gave him rest on every side during the length of his reign (1 Kings 5:3-4). Solomon also ruled over Israel at its greatest extent (1 Kings 4:21), though not the fullest promised (Exodus 23:31; the second half of Joshua). Solomon’s apostasy showed that the Lord’s purposes had not yet come to their end, but now Jesus, riding as the Son of David, comes into the City of David to claim the throne.

Everything about this scene, however, shows how far the house of David had fallen. Christ is not a king who was rich like Solomon, but poor and lowly. A donkey, found in a common village, is His mount. As Isaiah prophesied about Immanuel, the boy born of a Virgin would eat curds and honey (much like the poor diet of John the Baptist), and not the sumptuous feasts of His royal predecessors (Isaiah 7:15).

The crowd which gathers about Him on the road north of Jerusalem, however, seems to look past His lowly state. Just as people laid their garments on the ground at the proclamation of Jehu as king, whom the Lord raised up to chastise the house of Ahab (2 Kings 9:13), so they also laid their garments before Christ, who would go on to chastise the money-changers in the temple (Matthew 21:12). Then with the words of Psalm 118 in their mouths, they cried out before Him.

“Hosanna” is a Hebrew word, meaning “save us.” (This makes it, as a side note, related to the name Jesus, which in Hebrew is more like Joshua, “the Lord saves.”) Its usage here as “Hosanna to” suggests it had become a liturgical word much like “amen.” However, the crowd addresses this cry to the “Son of David” here rather than to the “Lord” as in Psalm 118:25. The substitution is not an accident. The Son of David, as Christ so frequently points out to His opponents, is the rejected stone which becomes the cornerstone (Psalm 118:22; Matthew 22:41-45).

With that being said, however, I wonder whether the crowd fully recognized the import of what it was saying. Not only would they bay for His blood not a few days later, but they also tell the bewildered people in Jerusalem itself that Jesus is a prophet (Matthew 21:11). The King of King has come to His own, and His own knew Him not (John 1:11).

The sovereignty and lordship of God forms the backbone of the entire Psalter.  In the midst of the troubles and uncertainties of life, the Lord reigns as king.  When the righteous seek after God and pray to Him knowing that He will hear, the Lord reigns as king.  No matter the circumstances, the Lord remains firmly in control of all things.  Psalm 2, therefore, may be considered as a second introduction to the whole book, because it powerfully introduces this recurring and important theme.

This Psalm may be divided into four sections with three verses each.  In such a division, the Psalm moves in a clear thought pattern:  (1) the nations conspire against the Lord and His anointed king; (2) the Lord establishes this king nevertheless; (3) this king reigns victorious over his enemies; and (4) the nations should repent and submit to the king.  This pattern also gravitates toward the middle, where the focus is on the coronation.  The Lord establishes the reign of this king, and he reigns triumphant for this reason.

In the first section, therefore, the Psalmist describes the conspiracy of the nations.  They are “restless,” a word used only here in the Old Testament, and the peoples “plot in vain.”  As noted in the study on Psalm 1, this word translated as “plot” means something like “muttering.”  The righteous man in Psalm 1 mutters the Word as he focuses on it.  The wicked here mutter among themselves as they seek to cast off this king from ruling over them.  Yet they are not merely muttering against the Lord’s anointed king, but also against the Lord Himself.  As Moses told the Israelites who complained:  “Your grumbling is not against us but against the Lord” (Exodus 16:8).  To grumble against those whom the Lord establishes is to also grumble against the Lord who established them in the first place.

However, the Lord responds to their muttering with laughter.  This is not the laughter of happiness, but the laughter of derision.  The Lord laughs at the wicked who conspire against Him because they imagine that they can actually fight against what the Lord establishes.  In His burning anger, the Lord will make the conspirators flee in a panic.  They will not be able to accomplish what they desire, because what the Lord causes to happen will happen without question.  The Lord sets His king, more literally “pours out,” likely in an act of consecration.  Zion, the holy hill of the temple, also shows that this consecration is not merely a worldly event.  The Lord establishes this king in the very place of His presence, for Zion is holy because the Lord is there.

Out of all of the sections of this Psalm, the third section most clearly reveals the identity of this king.  The Lord says to this king, “You are My son, this day I have fathered you.”  Few other Psalms are quoted as often as this one in the New Testament.  It is cited directly in Acts 13:33, Hebrews 1:5, and 5:5, all in reference to Christ.  The Gospel writers also allude to it at key moments within the earthly ministry of Christ, notably His Baptism (Matthew 3:17; Mark 1:11; Luke 3:22) and His Transfiguration (Matthew 17:5; Mark 9:7; Luke 9:35).  Jesus reigns as king in Zion even in the midst of His enemies, all of whom will finally be placed under His feet.  His judgment against them means the destruction of those who oppose Him, shattering them like a pot.  Every knee will bow at the name of Jesus (Philippians 2:10-11), whether to their shame or to their joy.  Establishing the kingdom of God is as much about extending who belongs to that kingdom as rendering justice on those who do not.

Additionally, the promise of the nations as inheritance and the “ends of the earth” as property show that this is not an ordinary king.  Even apart from the clear testimony of the New Testament, this passage alone shows that a greater than Solomon is here.  Solomon’s kingdom had definite, if expansive, borders (1 Kings 4:21).  He ruled over the earthly kingdom in its greatest extent, but even he could not claim to rule over all the nations.  This is not hyperbole, either.  Christ reigns and will reign over all the nations of the earth, because He is the King of Kings without peer or rival.

The final section of the Psalm exhorts the same nations to submit to the king.  Kings and judges of the earth, the heads of the nations, should gain insight.  “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and the knowledge of the Holy One is insight” (Proverbs 9:10).  Serving this king means walking in the way of the Lord.  Yet this service and joy comes with fear and trembling, because the fear of the Lord means fearing Him who can cast both body and soul into hell (Matthew 10:28).  Christ will return as judge, and the coming wrath means that the wicked will perish.  But Christ is also our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.  Those who fear Him as their King fear no man because Jesus is their Savior.

Christians can pray this Psalm confidently as a testimony to the kingship of God.  Even when the enemies of God seek to overwhelm, they are not able to overturn anything which the Lord does.  Further, just as this Psalm centers on the coronation of the king, so also the coronation of Christ, so prominent a theme in the New Testament, comforts us.  His reign as king means not only that He is in control, but also that there will be justice for His people.

Unlike the two previous readings from Proverbs, the Old Testament reading for the Seventeenth Sunday after Trinity comes from the main section of the book and not from the introduction. As I have said in previous studies, Proverbs resists easy outlining. The beginning of this chapter from Proverbs 25 proves this: “These also are proverbs of Solomon which the men of Hezekiah king of Judah copied.” In other words, Proverbs is a collection of sayings, and their compilers seem to have put them into one book for the sake of having them all together.

That being said, there are sometimes correlations between the smaller subsections of the chapters. Proverbs 25 is a good example of this, since it seems that Proverbs 25:1-14 can be subdivided into three smaller parts. I have included Proverbs 25:1-5 in this consideration, because verses 6 and 7 are part of the first section and form its concluding thought.

The first subsection focuses on the righteousness of kings and is further divided into four points. God conceals, but kings search out. The righteous king therefore seeks out that which God has concealed, and wisdom consists in pursuing the things of God. Even so, as the heavens above and the earth beneath are beyond our ability to know fully, so also the heart of kings. David on several occasions is compared to the “angel of God,” who is full of discernment (2 Samuel 14:17), wisdom (2 Samuel 14:20), judgment (2 Samuel 19:27), and blameless (1 Samuel 29:9). Since the king is in this way similar to God, there is a close comparison between them, which is much of the point of this section.

Moving to the next point, silver free of dross is the same as a king free of the wicked in his presence. Solomon referenced this idea earlier in Proverbs 16:12-13. Wise kings, in this way, pursue righteousness and have no part in the way of wickedness (Psalm 2:10-12). As the Lord cannot abide wickedness in His presence, so also the righteous king.

Finally, Solomon closes this subsection with the only major point of contact with the Gospel reading of Luke 14:1-11. Setting yourself forward in the presence of the king is self-exaltation. Such a man will be set lower in disgrace. It is better to be told “Come up here,” for “let another praise you, and not your own mouth” (Proverbs 27:2). But the key here is the close connection between the king and God. As such presumption before a king is shameful, how much more before God? The exalted will be humbled, and the humble will be exalted. The righteous king, therefore, is in the place of the righteous God, not as a replacement, but as God, so the king.

The second subsection focuses on the second great Commandment of “love your neighbor as yourself” (Matthew 22:34-40). Specifically, it is an exposition of “you shall not bear false witness.” A man who seeks to rush to be vindicated in court or elsewhere may very likely be operating with partial information. Better to be fully informed before doing what is right, or even better, to rebuke in private (Matthew 18:15-20).

The third subsection—from which the name of this site comes—praises wisdom. A word fitly spoken, that is, a wise word, is like gold framed in silver. The commandments of the Lord are more valuable “than gold, even much fine gold; sweeter also than honey and the drippings of the honeycomb” (Psalm 19:10).

This fit word, however, is especially the word of a sent messenger. If the rich man in torment imagined a great comfort in even a drop of water (Luke 16:24), how much greater will an actual comfort of the Word be (Isaiah 40:1-2)! A wise and faithful messenger, however, conforms in holiness to the Lord and His Word and has “no need to be ashamed, rightly handling the word of truth” (2 Timothy 2:15). “The one who hears you hears me,” but this promise is for those who abide in His Word (Luke 10:16). “If you utter what is precious and not what is worthless, you shall be as my mouth” (Jeremiah 15:19). But the faithless messenger are “waterless clouds, swept along by winds” (Jude 12). Such will be recognized “by their fruits” (Matthew 7:15-20), “for when dreams increase and words grow many, there is vanity; but God is the one you must fear” (Ecclesiastes 5:7).

Zechariah wrote his entire book within the context of the rebuilding of the temple.  The prophet Ezra records that Cyrus, the king of Persia who had recently conquered what was left of the Neo-Babylonian empire, made a decree to send the Jews back to the land of Israel in the first year of his reign, approximately 538 B.C. (Ezra 1:1-4).  They began this work in the second year, approximately 537 B.C. (Ezra 3:8).  However, because of opposition from people like the Samaritans, work ceased until the second year of Darius (Ezra 4:24).  The Lord gave the command to resume the work of rebuilding the temple on the first day of the sixth month in the second year of Darius, approximately 520 B.C. (Haggai 1:1), and they resumed the work on the 24th of that same month (Haggai 1:15).  They finished the work of rebuilding on 3 Adar, the twelfth month, in the sixth year of Darius, approximately 516 B.C. (Ezra 6:15).

The date notices Zechariah gives all fall within the context of the resumed work.  Zechariah first receives the inspiration of the Holy Spirit in the eighth month of the second year of Darius, approximately two months after the work was renewed (Zechariah 1:1).  His visions, which form the first part of the book until the end of chapter 6, came on the 24th of the eleventh month of the same year (Zechariah 1:7).  The remainder, in which this reading falls, come on the 4th of the ninth month in the fourth year of Darius, approximately two years before the work was finished (Zechariah 7:1).

Where his fellow prophet Haggai stirred up the returned exiles to the work of rebuilding, the Lord inspired Zechariah to proclaim a message of hope.  After all, the exiles had initially been zealous for the work of rebuilding, but their zeal had disappeared.  They had fallen into all kinds of idolatry and sins, even after the Lord had brought them back (Ezra 9-10).  It was not enough to have a rebuilt temple and a still faithless people.  While Zechariah assisted Ezra in this work (Nehemiah 8:4), it seems that the Jews remained hardened, since Zechariah would later become a martyr (Matthew 23:35).

Nevertheless, the immediate context for Zechariah 9 is the coming judgment against the enemies of Israel.  Damascus to the northeast, Lebanon to the northwest, and Philistia to the southwest, all the historical enemies of Israel would be cut off for their sins against God’s people (Zechariah 9:1-8).  Because the Lord also refers to Javan, typically understood to be Greece, in Zechariah 9:13, this passage seems to encompass all enemies generally.  In other words, there will no longer be war in Israel when the king comes to reign in triumph.  All who have set themselves against Israel will be cut off when the king comes.

“Daughter of Zion,” apart from one reference by David in Psalm 9:15, occurs primarily among the later prophets, from the days of Isaiah onward (for example, Isaiah 37:22; Zephaniah 3:14; and Lamentations 2:13).  The Lord refers to Israel as a woman in many other passages, such as Hosea 2:2, Ezekiel 23, and especially notably in Revelation 21:2.  The bride is called to rejoice and to shout aloud (a word which also occurs in Joshua 6, which is to say, a war-cry or a cry of triumph).  When the King comes, He will come in triumph and victory, and he will put an end to war and be indeed the Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6; see also Isaiah 2:4; Joel 3:10; and Micah 4:3).

However, there is a contrast at work here.  This just and victorious King will come humble and riding on a male donkey.  His coming will not be in the way one would expect, even though it is no less triumphant.  Much like the prophecy of Isaiah, Immanuel will eat curds and honey—the food of poverty—from his earliest years (Isaiah 7:15).  Ahaz’ faithlessness meant that the line of David would seem to fail by passing into poverty and ruin.  Even so, the true Son of David, poor and humble, would come to claim His rightful throne and reign as the promised heir forever (2 Samuel 7:12).  All of this shows why the Apostles cited this passage as part of the triumphal entry of Christ into Jerusalem (Matthew 21:5; John 12:15).

Finally, Zechariah notes that the reign of Christ will be from “sea as far as sea and from the river as far as the end of the land.”  This is nearly an exact quotation of Psalm 72:8, the psalm of Solomon which prays for the welfare of the king.  It refers poetically to the promises which God had made to Abraham (Genesis 15:18-20), to Israel through Moses (Exodus 23:31; Deuteronomy 11:24), and to Joshua (Joshua 1:4).  Not only would this enormous tract of land encompass all of the territory of the enemies of Israel (as the Lord promised elsewhere in passages like Genesis 22:17 and 24:60), it is also a larger territory than Israel ever possessed historically.  The closest to come to this was Solomon, who “ruled over all the kingdoms from the Euphrates to the land of the Philistines and to the border of Egypt” (1 Kings 4:21).  But Solomon fell into sin and the kingdom divided as a result.  But with the coming of Christ, the one greater than Solomon (Matthew 12:42 and Luke 11:31), the Lord will again be King over His people and reign in triumph as the Crucified One.