Preaching Christ: C.F.W. Walther on How to Preach

The man who taught generations of preachers at Concordia Seminary, St. Louis, and who preached for decades week in and week out had a lot to say about preaching.  Join us to hear about what sermons should sound like, how Scripture should be applied, and why preaching matters so much to God and to His people.

Further reading:

Walther’s Law and Gospel

Walther’s Pastoral Theology

Host: Rev. Willie Grills

Regular Guest: Rev. Adam Koontz

Episode: 105

Join our Facebook group Word Fitly Posting to discuss this episode or any other topic. Follow us on Twitter: @wordfitly. Send us a message: [email protected] Subscribe to the podcast: RSS Feed, iTunes, Spotify, or your favorite podcasting app.

Preaching Christ: Walter A. Maier

In our new series Preaching Christ, we discuss how great preachers of the past proclaimed God’s Word in order to learn what preaching has been and can be.  In this first episode in the series, we look at the style, themes, delivery, and impact of Walter A. Maier, the first speaker of the Lutheran Hour.  What can we learn from him?  What can he say to our day?  Whether you preach regularly or listen to preaching, join us in our discussion of this great man.

To learn more about the life of WAM, be sure to listen to our previous episode:

WFS Episode 62: The Chrysostom of American Lutheranism: The Life and Impact of Walter A Maier

Audio Recordings of Walter A Maier

“Eleven Hundred Voices for our Redeemer’s Praise” (1948)

“Salvation Completed, It Is Finished!” (1937)

“Jesus Christ the Same Yesterday, Today, and Forever” (1937)

“Jesus Christ Is Our God”

“Resurrection Reality”

“Tell It to Jesus”

Further Reading

William F. Arndt – “Walter Arthur Maier, 1893-1950”

Lester Zeitler – An Investigation of the Factors of Persuasion in the Sermons of Dr Walter A Maier

David Gunderlach – A Comparison Measurement of Law and Gospel in Selected Sermons of Saint Augustine, Bernard of Clairvaux, Jonathan Edwards, Phillips Brooks, and Walter A. Maier

Richard J. Shuta – “Walter A. Maier as Evangelical Preacher”

Paul Maier – A Man Spoke, A World Listened: The Story of Walter A. Maier

Hosts: Rev. Willie Grills and Rev. Zelwyn Heide

Regular Guest: Rev. Adam Koontz

Episode: 102

Join our Facebook group Word Fitly Posting to discuss this episode or any other topic. Follow us on Twitter: @wordfitly. Send us a message: [email protected] Subscribe to the podcast: RSS Feed, iTunes, Spotify, or your favorite podcasting app.

Loehe the Preacher

Preaching is the chief work of the ministry, yet it happens on more than Sunday morning.  A man must be apt to teach, though he can and should increase this God-given gift in his work.  Loehe also describes the form of a sermon and offers some surprising suggestions regarding this important task.

Host: Rev. Zelwyn Heide

Regular Guest: Rev. David Appold

Episode: 70

Join our Facebook group Word Fitly Posting to discuss this episode or any other topic. Follow us on Twitter: @wordfitly. Send us a message: [email protected] Subscribe to the podcast: RSS Feed, iTunes, Spotify, or your favorite podcasting app.

Extra: Sermon for the Installation of Rev. Willie Grills

WFS Preaching: Listen to the sermon preached by regular guest, Rev. David Appold, for the installation of Rev. Willie Grills at St. Paul’s Lutheran Church, Mattoon, IL. The sermon texts were Jeremiah 15:19-21, 1 Corinthians 4:1-5, and John 20:19-23. Follow us on Twitter: @wordfitly Send us a message: [email protected] Subscribe to the podcast: RSS Feed, iTunes, Spotify, or your favorite podcasting app.

Review: Why Johnny Can’t Preach

T. David Gordon, Why Johnny Can’t Preach: The Media Have Shaped the Messengers (Phillipsburg, New Jersey, P&R Publishing Company, 2009).

If “a word fitly spoken is like apples of gold in a setting of silver,” (Proverbs 25:11) then T. David Gordon might contend that most of what he has heard from pulpits over the years bears more resemblance to the cacophony of a deconstructionist painting.

Just a few sentences into the introduction, Gordon drops this massive redpill: “I’ve always feared to state publicly that, in my opinion, less than 30 percent of those who are ordained to the Christian ministry can preach an even mediocre sermon.” (11). Hard to swallow, but necessary.  And again a few pages later, he laments “the problem…is not that we don’t have ‘great’ preachers; in many circumstances we don’t even have mediocre preachers.” (14).  He advocates meat and potatoes preaching—not entertainment, nor that every pastor become a Chrysostom.

Gordon’s concern is not so much failure on the doctrinal level, though he does touch on that a bit.  Instead, most of the book focuses on Left Hand Kingdom aspects of good preaching: clarity, memorability, and unity around a clear theme. Thinking he was dying of cancer, Gordon penned this concise, pointed, and heart-felt treatise against what he saw as ubiquitous, sub-par preaching.

Even better though, the author suggests numerous workable remedies.  Workable, that is, after the preacher, and perhaps even his congregation, undertake deliberate, long term solutions.

Gordon writes from decades of experience as a seminary professor and pew-sitter in the Orthodox Presbyterian in America, the Presbyterian Church in America, as well as the broader conservative Evangelical world.  Nonetheless, the Lutheran preacher can find great help in this book.

As Gordon sees it, “to preach the Word of God well, one must already have cultivated…three sensibilities: the sensibility of the close reading of texts, the sensibility of composed communication, and the sensibility of the significant.  Without these, a person simply cannot preach, any more than he could if his larynx were removed or he were utterly illiterate.” (106).

With a preface, an introduction, and five chapters, T. David Gordon diagnoses the sickness and prescribes the cure in just 108 pages.

In Chapter 1, Gordon unpacks his assertion that “Johnny can’t preach.”  In addition to personal experience as a listener, he draws on decades of anecdotal evidence, including conversations with lay people concerning preaching.  Gordon contrasts the basic public speaking expectations of Rotary Club with what passes on Sunday morning.  If any Lutherans are getting sweaty at this point, they will be comforted to know that among his criteria for a good sermon, Gordon lists “textual fidelity” and “evangelical tone,” as well as several other classical Reformed criteria.  Again, a discerning Lutheran pastor can find much to like here.

Chapter 2 takes a deeper dive down the rabbit hole, contending that “Johnny” cannot preach because he struggles even to read the Bible on the deep level needed for good preaching. Yes, he knows his phonics and might even have a master’s degree and some familiarity in the original languages, but he fails to read scripture in deliberate, disciplined manner needed for homiletics.  The preacher cannot speed read scripture for the basic content or information. He must be able to appreciate the specifics of each passage of scripture, rather than wander off into other more general Christian truths.  His sermons should not be simple paraphrases of the obvious facts.  The pastor needs to dig deep in order to bring up the treasures of God’s Word to his people.  This should be a slow, deliberate process.  Scripture itself must work on the preacher.  It should force him to think, wrestle, and stretch.  It should feed him and build him up.  Since “the text doesn’t stimulate [preachers] particularly…their sermon is not particularly stimulating to their hearers.” (47).

In Chapter 3, Gordon argues that we have allowed the way we use various electronic media to eviscerate our ability to compose meaningful communication.  Images, sounds, and videos bombard us all the time.  We take in more stimulation that a human brain can process.  When do we ever take a Sabbath rest from the constant barrage?  The modern reliance upon electronic media makes us passive, rather than active; lazy and confusing, rather than zealous and clear. Our brains are scattered and our words garbled.  If we are not careful, we allow the way we consume electronic media to hamper our ability to carefully read texts like the Bible, as well as our ability to communicate in a clear fashion.  Gordon advocates not necessarily that we go off-grid, but that we exercise discipline and also cultivate certain aptitudes.

The author discusses sermon content in Chapter 4.  The sermon should largely focus on Christ and his work of redemption.  Gordon explicitly compliments Lutherans on that point.  He also touches on four common misguided types of sermons: moralism, “how-to,” subjective spiritual introspection, and culture war/social gospel.  Lutherans would agree with him here.

Chapter 5 offers several solutions for the preacher.  First, an annual preaching review.  This is not so that the preacher can hear that he needs more jokes or needs to be more entertaining.  Instead, Gordon simply wants the sermon to be clear and memorable (he uses the word “unified”).  His suggestion is this: once each year, someone other than the preacher call several hearers at random on a Tuesday or a Wednesday and ask them what the sermon was about.  Gordon asserts “if, several days after the sermon, many or most hearers do not have any idea what it was about, or if they have different ideas, then the sermon plainly and manifestly failed at this crucial point [unity].” (98). A good Presbyterian, Gordon suggests the elders perform this task. Some Lutherans might quibble here.  Nonetheless, our tradition does assign such a role to the circuit visitor.

Gordon also suggests preachers cultivate an ability to read good literature in general, especially poetry.  The preacher must be able to read texts closely; he must be able to discern the significant and impress it upon his hearers.  This is different than a cursory reading for information.  Gordon makes several recommendations on how a pastor could start this in the parish.  He recommends An Experiment in Criticism, by C.S. Lewis, as well as Poetry as a Means of Grace, by Charles Grosvenor Osgood.  Gordon also rightly disavows post-World War II poetry as “almost perversely iconoclastic.” (102).

Similarly, preachers must cultivate an ability to write well.  Hand-written letters, well written emails, as well as contributing to newspapers, theological journals, or magazines will help him work these muscles.  Gordon also commends writing prayers as a devotional practice, as well as penning pastoral notes to one’s parishioners.  Lastly, Gordon suggests public speaking classes, or joining a club like Rotary which would help the preacher hone these skills.

The congregation can also help the pastor preach better sermons by respecting his time and his calling to be in the Word.  Gordon writes, “as long as the typical congregation runs its minister ragged with clerical, administrative, and other duties…[and] expects the minister to be out five or six nights a week visiting or at meetings, the minister will not have time in his schedule to read, write, or reflect….those sensibilities essential to effective preaching will remain uncultivated.” (106-7). One might argue specifics with Gordon, but he is basically just asserting we practice Acts 6:2.

Some Lutherans might object to T. David Gordon’s undertaking.  Gordon is not implying that we can help God, or that preaching is ultimately man’s work.  But Gordon has isolated several tendencies which he thinks get in the way of well-organized, clear, memorable preaching.  We affirm that the Word of God is living and active, that it accomplishes great things.  But if my sermon is so disorganized, dense, or cliché-ridden that my people do not fully hear me, am I not just a noisy gong?  On Pentecost, the Spirit gave men the ability to speak and hear the Gospel in their own tongues.  If it does not profit to hear the Gospel in a language I do not know, could we not go a step further and accept that poor communication means I am not as edifying a preacher as I could be?  Yes, sinful hearers will have itching ears.  But are fleshly expectations, Pietism, or the hearers always the only things to blame when the hearers do not benefit as much as they could from the sermon?

Gordon’s observations on mass media offer a profound social commentary in their own right; the book is worth reading for this alone.  We should be cautious of the way we consume social and electronic media, lest it hamper our ability to read and clearly proclaim God’s Word.  We should also take Reformed theologians on their own terms and appreciate what they might have to offer, rather than just using them as straw men.  Every preacher has room to grow.  Each can also help brother pastors improve their preaching skills.  Why Johnny Can’t Preach will invaluably assist the Lutheran preacher on all of these counts.

Hearing the Word

Faith comes by hearing.  Because preaching is the chief means of grace, not only is what we hear important, but also how we hear it.  How can we best prepare to hear Gods Word when it is preached?  What should our expectations be?  How does that influence how we hear a sermon?  How can we better hear the written Word?  What about Bible class?  Join us as we discuss hearing the Word in practical ways.

Hosts: Rev. Willie Grills and Rev. Zelwyn Heide
Regular Guest: Rev. David Appold
Episode: 34

Join our Facebook group Word Fitly Posting to discuss this episode or any other topic.
Follow us on Twitter: @wordfitly
Send us a message: [email protected]
Subscribe to the podcast: RSS Feed, iTunes, Spotify, or your favorite podcasting app.

Jonah the Prophet

In many people’s minds, the story of Jonah is about a man being swallowed by a whale, but this is only a part of the story. When and where did Jonah prophesy? Why do some people say the book is an allegory? What does it mean that the Lord relents of the disaster he was going to send on Nineveh? How does Jonah’s preaching inform our own? Join us as we discuss these and other questions about Jonah in our latest podcast.

Hosts: Rev. Willie Grills and Rev. Zelwyn Heide
Regular Guest: Rev. David Appold
Episode: 23

Join our Facebook group Word Fitly Posting to discuss this episode or any other topic.
Follow us on Twitter: @wordfitly
Send us a message: [email protected]
Subscribe to the podcast: RSS Feed, iTunes, Spotify, or your favorite podcasting app.

Walther on Preaching

How should God’s Word be preached? CFW Walther covers that question with characteristic clarity and force in his Pastoral Theology. Listen to learn what ought to be in a good sermon, what’s important in a sermon, and why sanctification must be proclaimed clearly from the pulpit.

Books for further reading: Pastoral Theology, Gospel Sermons Vol. 1, Gospel Sermons Vol. 2, and Suelflow’s biography Servant of the Word.

Hosts: Rev. Willie Grills and Rev. Zelwyn Heide
Guest: Rev. Adam Koontz
Episode: 17

Follow us on Twitter: @wordfitly
Send us a message: [email protected]
Subscribe to the podcast: RSS Feed, iTunes, Spotify, or your favorite podcasting app.

Third Sunday in Advent: 1 Corinthians 4:1-5

Factionalism was one of the primary problems within the Corinthian congregation, and Paul addresses this issue first within his letter.  This division, however, stemmed at least in part from the influence of those who questioned the authority of Paul (1 Corinthians 9:1-7).  Such false teachers attempted to undermine Paul to make their own authority appear all the greater.  Therefore, Paul addresses the problem of division by carefully clarifying the nature of his authority as an apostle, from which we may also learn the nature of authority within the Church in general.

Paul’s authority does not center in his rhetorical ability.  “And I, when I came to you, brothers, did not come proclaiming to you the testimony of God with lofty speech or wisdom” (1 Corinthians 2:2).  If anything, like Moses (Exodus 4:10), Paul was not particularly impressive in terms of speaking (1 Corinthians 2:3; 2 Corinthians 10:10).  However, this is for their benefit, “so that your faith might not rest in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God” (1 Corinthians 2:5).  Such wisdom was not worldly, but from the Spirit, and as such belongs to those who are of Christ, apart from all worldly considerations.

Nor does Paul’s authority center in his own person.  The Corinthians had forgotten this, and their factionalism arose from considering the man too highly.  “What then is Apollos? What is Paul? Servants through whom you believed, as the Lord assigned to each. I planted, Apollos watered, but God gave the growth. So neither he who plants nor he who waters is anything, but only God who gives the growth” (1 Corinthians 3:5-7).  Paul’s work in laying the foundation is of much value, to be sure, but it is ultimately God working through Paul that makes this work what it is.  Paul is a skilled master builder, laying the foundation which is Jesus Christ, and the Judgment will reveal the nature of that work (1 Corinthians 3:10-15).

Therefore, one must regard Paul and those who bear authority in the Church as “servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God.”  A high calling, but one that bears high responsibility, since the value of stewards depends on how faithfully their exercise their office.  Joseph rose to prominence in his master’s house because the Lord was with him (Genesis 39).  The dishonest steward lost his position from squandering his master’s possessions (Luke 16:1-13).  Stewards of Christ demonstrate their faithfulness by rightly handling the word of truth (2 Timothy 2:15), bringing out of their treasure what is new and what is old (Matthew 13:52).  They continue in what they have been taught, being equipped for every good work through the power of the living Scriptures (2 Timothy 3:10-17).

But the judgment of faithfulness is not a matter of the world, either.  “Who are you to pass judgment on the servant of another? It is before his own master that he stands or falls. And he will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make him stand” (Romans 14:4).  And if the faithful are incompetent to judge such cases, as it were, why would the world be any better (1 Corinthians 6)?  Not that Paul must answer to the Church regarding his faithfulness, but to his own master, the Lord.  But when the Lord comes to judge the world, then the nature of what he has build will be revealed.  Paul has labored for a time in darkness, but the light of Christ will make all things plain.

As with Paul, so also with those entrusted with smaller responsibilities.  The guardian of the remote post is not thereby relieved of his duty or relaxed in its rigor.  The value of his labor in the Lord too will be judged by fire.  Will it be flammable, built upon the wisdom of men?  The appearance of such wisdom is always impressive, but ultimately devoid of power.  It is self-serving and desires only to be noticed.  Or will it endure the test, built upon the mind of Christ?  While such wisdom may come with rhetorical ability, it will prove itself by its fruits.  It builds up those who hear it, even at the cost of making those who bear it a “spectacle to the world,” fools for Christ (1 Corinthians 4:8-13).  But it is ultimately worthy of imitation.  The arrogant fool who delights in worldly wisdom has only talk, but “the kingdom of God does not consist in talk, but in power” (1 Corinthians 4:20).

Second Sunday of Easter: Ezekiel 37:1-14

Following the account of his call in chapters 1-3, Ezekiel preaches against Israel in chapters 4 through 24. Like many of the other prophets, Ezekiel condemns Israel for her sins and proclaims that the judgment is coming swiftly. Ezekiel’s ministry begins close to the end of the kingdom and continues into the exile. However, he turns his attention against the enemies of Israel in chapters 25 through 32, which is good news for Israel. God has not forgotten His people, even as He punishes them for their sins. Ezekiel then returns to Israel, bringing both more words of reproof as well as words of comfort. The reading for the Second Sunday of Easter falls into the latter.

By the time of this passage, Jerusalem has been captured and the kingdom has come to an end. The exiles have begun to despair: “Our bones have dried up, and our hope is lost; we are cut off” (Ezekiel 37:11). Everything seems to be lost, and all of God’s promises seem to have failed. They are in a foreign land because of their sins, and they are wondering when, or even if, it will end.

Ezekiel 37:1 demonstrates that the valley of dry bones is a vision given to the prophet. Ezekiel says that the “hand of the Lord” was upon him, a key phrase for such visions throughout the book (Ezekiel 3:14, 22; 8:1; 40:1). He is also brought “in the Spirit” into the valley (Revelation 4:2; 17:3). While the Holy Spirit can physically move someone from place to place (such as Philip in Acts 8:39-40), the passage is presented in the language of a prophetic vision. Ezekiel is commanded to go into “the valley” in 3:22, which suggests a physical location, but it is not specified, and he sees a vision both times. If they are the same valley, he does not record the presence of the bones the first time.

Ezekiel 37:2 emphasizes just how many bones there are in this valley, since the prophet is led among them, and it also emphasizes that there is no earthly hope for them. Dry bones have been out in the open for a long time. But the Lord asks him, “Son of Adam, can these bones live” (Ezekiel 37:3)? A rhetorical question, as the Lord already knows what He wants to do (John 6:6; Rev 7:13-14; John 21:15-17). However, Ezekiel recognizes that he should not impose his own thoughts here, but rather answers “Lord God, You know” (compare 2 Peter 1:20).

The Lord commands him to “prophesy” or to speak as he commanded to speak. Ezekiel, in fact, has no choice but to speak in this way, suggesting that for him in particular “the hand of the Lord” is something like a prophetic fit (Ezekiel 3:26-27). It is true that the Lord had loosed his mouth when Jerusalem fell (Ezekiel 33:22), but he still speaks as he is commanded here. It is certainly appropriate to connect this to verses about the Lord being with the mouth of the preacher (such as Jeremiah 15:19 or Luke 10:16), as Ezekiel helps to clarify just how important it is to “guard the deposit entrusted to you” (1 Timothy 6:20-21). But the prophet does so involuntarily or at least does so through most of his ministry.

Nevertheless, it is in the proclamation of the Word of the Lord that all of the things the Lord promises happens to the bones. The bones are commanded to “hear,” which only emphasizes that the Word alone will do what the Lord promises to do (Romans 10:17; Luke 11:28; John 6:63; Psalm 119:25, 117; John 11:43-44). The coming of the Spirit points also to the first creation of man, since the Lord breathed into Adam the “breath of life” (Genesis 2:7). The Lord alone gives physical life, and the Lord alone gives spiritual life (Deuteronomy 32:39; 1 Samuel 2:6; Job 5:18: Hosea 6:1).

Finally, the Lord does nothing without a purpose (Isaiah 55:10-11). He sends this vision to Ezekiel to comfort Israel in the midst of their distress. The beautiful ending of this passage regarding the opening of the graves seems to serve two purposes. First, Israel will be raised from the grave of exile, so to speak, and set back in their own land. Because the major prophets have said this again and again to Israel, even in the face of the coming disaster, “I will bring you into the land” (Ezekiel 37:12, 14) must also carry with it this immediate promise. However, the language is too plain to say that it must only refer to the return from exile. Rather, as Jesus says, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live, and everyone who lives and believes in me shall never die” (John 11:25-26; see also 1 Corinthians 15; 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18; Revelation 20:13; et al).